The parameters in this section specify directional bias in externally estimated reference points.

These are most commonly used in data-moderate MPs that require an externally supplied reference point. Note that the most robust way to test out MPs that require external reference points is to simulate the reference point estimation procedure within the MP, because this allows the values to be updated as more information becomes available. Using static values may introduce additional error into the simulation test. However, the parameters in this section allow the user to understand how being consistently wrong about the true value of the reference point may impact long-term MP performance.

### FMSY_Mbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in estimates of the ratio of the fishing mortality rate that gives the maximum sustainable yield relative to the assumed instantaneous natural mortality rate. FMSY/M. FMSY_Mbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### BMSY_B0biascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in estimates of the BMSY relative to unfished biomass (BMSY/B0). BMSY_B0biascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Irefbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed relative index of abundance (Iref). Irefbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Crefbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed reference catch (Cref). Crefbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Brefbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed reference biomass (Bref). Brefbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Dbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed depletion level. Dbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Dobs

Log-normal coefficient of variation controlling error in observations of stock depletion among years. Observation error in the depletion expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Dobs requires the upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly observation error values for the depletion data are then drawn from this distribution. For each time step the simulation model records the true depletion, but the observed depletion is generated by applying this yearly error term (plus any bias, if specified) to the true depletion.

### hbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling persistent bias in steepness. hbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Recbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling persistent bias in recent recruitment strength. Recbiascv requires the upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly bias values for the depletion data are then drawn from this distribution. Positive real numbers.

### sigmaRbiascv

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling persistent bias in recruitment variability. sigmaRbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

### Custom Parameters

See Custom Obs Parameters for information on specifying simulation- and year-specific observation error values.